We get information about the history of Rajasthan from historical texts, citations, inscriptions, descriptions of thousands of travelers and archaeological material. Archaeological material includes inscriptions, monuments, statues, frescoes, copper plates, etc. obtained from excavation. Historical material includes texts and accounts composed from time to time. The best means of getting information about Rajasthan history are inscriptions in which the description of historical events is found. The work of excavation of archaeological sources is done by the Archaeological Survey of India, which was established in 1861 AD under the leadership of Alexander Cunningham . It was reconstituted by John Marshall in 1902 AD. The inscriptions which contain only the glories of the achievements of a ruler are called Prashasti. The style of Rajasthan inscriptions is prose-verse. The credit for starting the archaeological survey in Rajasthan goes to ACL . Carlyle is given. Among the
major excavators in Rajasthan are H.D. Sankaliya, B.B. Lal, B.K. Thapar, R.C. Agarwal, V.N. Mishra, Dr. Bhandarkar, Dayaram Sahni, Dr. Hannarid, Akshaykirti Vyas, D.P. Agarwal, A.N. Ghosh, S.N. The names of Rajguru, Vijay Kumar, Lalit Pandey, Jeevan Kharkwal etc. are prominent.
Records and testimonials-
The articles carved on the surface of stone or metal are included in the inscription. Inscriptions
include inscriptions, pillar inscriptions, idol inscriptions, cave inscriptions, etc. Due to being dated and contemporary , the records are most important under the archaeological sources. The language of the early inscriptions was Sanskrit, while in the medieval period Urdu, Persian and Rajasthani languages were also used. The study of records is called epigraphy . The oldest inscriptions in India belong to Emperor Ashoka Maurya, whose language is Prakrit and Magadhi and the script Brahmi is found. The Junagadh inscription of the Shaka ruler Rudradaman is the first Sanskrit inscription in India. The main languages of the inscriptions of Rajasthan are Sanskrit and Rajasthani and their script is Mahajani and Harshalipi. The oldest text written in the Persian language has been found written behind the wall of the dome of two and a half days’ hut in Ajmer. This article is from around 1200 AD.
Inscriptions of Ashoka (Virat Nagar) :-
Two inscriptions of Maurya Emperor Ashoka, Bhabru inscription and Bairath inscription have been found from the hill of Bairath. The Bhabru inscription was discovered in 1840 AD by Captain Burt from the hill of Bijak . This inscription gives information about Ashoka being a follower of Buddhism and the Maurya rule in Rajasthan. The Bhabru inscription of Ashoka is currently preserved in the
Calcutta Museum . This is called the Calcutta-Bairath article. Another inscription has also been found from Virat Nagar.
Amer's article :
In 1612 AD, this inscription in Sanskrit and Nagari languages gives information about the Kachhwaha rulers. In this inscription, the genealogy of Kachhwaha rulers from Prithviraj to Mansingh, achievements of Mansingh, constructions in Jamwaramgarh are mentioned. This article is important to know the history of Kachhwaha dynasty of Amer. In this article, the Kachhwaha dynasty has been called Raghuvansh Tilak. In this article the word Nizam is mentioned as Provincial Department. In this Mansingh is described as the son of Bhagwant Das. In this article the capital Jamwaramgarh came from Dausa and the fortification of Jamwaramgarh was built by Mansingh etc.
Kumbhalgarh inscription (1460 AD) :-
In 1460 AD, this inscription is engraved in the Kumbashyam temple (Mamadev temple) located in Chittaurgarh, whose author was Mahesh . Some historians consider the author of this inscription to be Kanha Vyas. The language of this inscription was Sanskrit and the script was Nagari . This inscription was engraved on five rocks, out of which the first, third and fourth rocks are available. The first rock has 68 verses, the second rock describes Chitrang Tal, Chittor fort and Chittor being a Vaishnava pilgrimage form. The third stone shows the genealogy. The description of Hammir in the fourth rock mentions his victory over Chelavat. It describes the victories of Khuman and his sacrifice. In this article four parts of Mewar are known which were Chittor, Aghat, Mewar and Vagad. In this article, along with the description of Mokal, there is a mention of winning Sapadalaksha and defeating Firoz Khan. Especially in this prashasti, Kumbha is described in detail and the victories made by him include Yoginipur, Madovar, Yagyapur, Hamirpur, Vardhaman, Champavati, Singhpur, Ranstambh, Sapadalaksha, Abhor, Bamba Vad, Mandalgarh, Sarangpur etc. Huh. This article mentions about the rulers of the Guhil dynasty. In this , Bappa Rawal has been described as a
Vipravanshi Brahmin and the name of Guhil’s son Laat Vinod is mentioned. In the fourth rock of this article, Hammir has been called as Vishmaghati Panchanan. This article mentions the temples and stepwells built by Kumbha.
Inscription of Chirwa (1273 AD) :-
This inscription of 1273 AD is engraved in Nagari script on the outer gate of a temple in Chirwa village of Udaipur. This inscription consisting of 36 lines and 51 verses written in Devanagari script and Sanskrit language begins with the worship of Vageshwar and Vageshwari. This article gives information about the achievements of the early rulers of the Guhil dynasty . In this article Jaitra Singh, Samar Singh and Tej Singh etc. have been described as majestic rulers. In this inscription, first information about the practice of Sati and Pashupat Shaivism is obtained. In this inscription, description of the location of Chirwa village, quotations of Swami Vishnu and Yogeshwar (Shiva) and
the establishment of Yogeshwari temple and land grants, transit land is found. This inscription gives information about the achievements of the Tantey caste. The author of this inscription was Ratnaprabh Suri and the engraver was Parshwachandra . Kelisingh and Shilpi Delhan , the engraver of this inscription, did the work of putting it on the wall.
Bijolia inscription (1170 AD) :-
This inscription describes the Chauhans of Sambhar (Shakambhari) and Ajmer.
This inscription of 1170 AD was made by Jain Shravak Lalak on a rock near Parshvanath temple of Bijolia . In this inscription ‘Uttam Shikhar Purana’ was established by ‘Jain Shravak Lolak’ in the memory of Parshvanath temple, it has been mentioned in it. It is also found in this inscription that Vigraharaj IV had subjugated Dhillika (Delhi). In this inscription Vipra Shree Vatsagautrebhut is found for Chauhans, on the basis of which Dr. Dashrath Sharma has described Chauhans as Brahmins of Vatsagotra . According to Gopinatha Sharma, information is available in this to know the life and religious condition of the 12th century. According to the Bijolia inscription, Arnoraj attacked Malwa and defeated Parmara dynasty Narvarma. In this inscription, the Chauhans of Sambhar and Ajmer have been described as Vatsagotriya Brahmins and their lineage and achievements have been mentioned. The author of this inscription was Gunabhadra . It has 93 Sanskrit verses. The
author of this inscription is Keshav Kayastha and the engraver is Govind . In this article,the description of the land grant given at that time was called Dohli and the land was divided into areas. In this inscription, the word ‘Pratigana’ has been used for the larger unit of the village group . In this inscription, the officials of villages and pratigans were known by the names ‘Mahattam’ and ‘ Parigrahi ‘ etc. In this article, there is mention of Kutila river flowing in Mewar and Jain pilgrimage sites. In this inscription, the plateau area around Bijolia has been called Uttamadi, from which presently it is known as Uparmal.
Ghatiyala's inscription (861 AD) :-
This article is in Sanskrit in Champu style. The script of Rohinskup (Ghatiyala) is of North Indian style. This inscription is inscribed in the form of a group of four on a pillar at Ghatiyala near Jodhpur which mentions about the Pratihara ruler Kakkuk . In this the genealogy of Pratihara rulers from Rohilidh to Kakkuk is found. This inscription gives information about the defeat of the
Abhiras by the Kakkuks. Harishchandra’s successor Nagabhatta of this dynasty made Merta his capital. In this, Harishchandra was also called Rohiladhi. This pillar is located in a Jain temple called Mata Ki Sal. In this the mention of the brahmins of Maga caste is found and the people
of this caste are also known as Shakadwipiya brahmin of Marwar. From these articles, information about the then Varna system is obtained. From this article we get information about the Pratihaar dynasty of Marwar-Jaisalmer. The other two inscriptions of Ghatiyala give information about the names of the Pratiharas of Mandore and their achievements. Ghatiyala to V.S. 918 Two articles of Chaitra Shukla II became available. One of these articles is a shlokad of Maharashtrian language and the other is meant in Sanskrit. This inscription has been engraved by Kakkuk, whose author was Maga and the engraver was Krishnaeshwar .
Abu's (Achaleshwar) inscription (1285 AD) :-
The time of this inscription is of 1285 AD, it has 62 verses. This inscription has been obtained from the monastery near the Achaleshwar temple in Abu. This inscription is engraved in Sanskrit language on the wall near the Achaleshwar temple, its author was Shubhachandra and the engraver was Karma Singh. It is also mentioned in this inscription that on the orders of Samarsingh abbot Bhavshankar, the said monastery was renovated and food was arranged for the ascetic. The genealogy of Bappa to Maharana Samar Singh is mentioned in this inscription. In this inscription, along with the achievements of the kings of the Parmar dynasty, mention of the dynasties of Vastupal and Tejpal is found. It is known from this inscription that Tejpal had installed this commendation in the Neminath temple of Delwara. Describing the Medpat in this article, it has been written that the wicked were killed here by Bappa and it has been called Medpat due to the land getting wet with their fat . In this inscription, the location and yield of Mount Abu has been told. In this there is mention of Harit Rishi’s penance and Bappa’s attainment of kingdom with his blessings.
Record of Manmori (713 AD) :-
It belongs to the Maurya dynasty and gives information about the ancient condition of Chittor. The
copy of this inscription is published in the first part of the book Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan by Colonel James Todd . This inscription of 713 AD is engraved on the banks of Lake Mansarovar (Chittorgarh) . Its author Pushya and engraver Shivaditya are mentioned in this inscription. This inscription gives information about Chitrangad, who built the fort of Chittorgarh. It also mentions the
construction of Mansarovar lake by Mansarovar, the son of Raja Bhoj. This record was thrown into the sea by Colonel James Todd while on his way to England. In this inscription, there is a mention of the churning of the nectar and the tax levied on the public. Apart from this, the use of elephants in war, the imprisoning of enemies and proper arrangements for the care of their women, the ability of
seafarers among the kings, etc. are mentioned. Information about four Mauryan rulers (Maheshwar, Bhima, Bheja and Mana) is found in this inscription.
Barwa Yup (Pillar) inscription (238-239 AD ) :-
This inscription has been found in 3-yup pillar. In this inscription, there is a mention of the performance of Aptoyam Yagya by Maukhari Dhantrat after the three night yagyas were organized
by Balavardhan, Somdev and Balasingh. This inscription is the oldest and first inscription of the Maukhari kings. This is the oldest inscription of the rulers of Maukhari dynasty engraved on the pillar at Barwa (Kota). This inscription written in Sanskrit language gives information about the achievements of Mokhari rulers Bal, Somdev, Bal Singh etc. The Krit Samvat has been mentioned in this inscription, in which it is said that the Maukhari rulers performed yajnas after 295 years of the Krit era. The Barwa yup inscription pertains to the Maukhari dynasty and the Maukhari kings had many branches. The chief man of the Barwa yup was Bal who belonged to the older shakhas than the other shakhas. Its title being that of Mahasenapati means that he was very powerful. It seems that it must have been under the Shaka-Kshatrapas. This inscription tells about the condition of the early Maukharis (6th century). These articles are indicative of Vaishnavism and Yagya glory.
Records of Adivaraha Temple :-
The description of the Guhilas is found in this article. This inscription of 944 AD has been received from the Adivaraha temple of Udaipur, which is inscribed in Brahmi script in Sanskrit. According to this article, the Adivaraha temple at Ahad was built by a person named Adivaraha. In this inscription, there is also a mention of Gangoddhava i.e. the descent of the Ganges. This article is from the time of Bhartrihari II, the ruler of Mewar. According to this Ahad was famous as a religious place.
Shringi Rishi's article (1428 AD) :-
Its time is Vikrami Samvat 1485 Shravan Shukla 5. It is an inscription in Sanskrit language and contains 30 verses. This inscription has been started with the prayer of Vidyadevi, later the achievements of Hammir, Kshetrasimha and Mokal are described. This inscription of 1428 AD is engraved on a black stone at a place called Shringi Rishi near Eklingji of Mewar, whose language is Sanskrit. The author of this article was the poet Yogeshwar and the engraver was Fana . It is from the time of Maharana Mokal in which the achievements of the rulers from Rana Hammir to Mokal are mentioned. In this inscription, there is a mention of Maharana Mokal building a wall around the Eklingji temple and defeating Nagaur ruler Firoz Khan and Gujarat ruler Ahmed Khan in the war. . Information about the social life of Bhils is found in this inscription. From this inscription it is known that Hammir successfully fought with the Bhils and defeated his enemy King Jaitra. It is mentioned in this inscription that the taxes collected from Hindus were removed from Lakha’s (Tristhali, Kashi, Prayag and Gaya) and a temple was built at Gaya. Information about the political relations of Mewar-Gujarat and Mewar-Malwa is obtained from this inscription.
Barnala Yup column article (227 AD) :-
Obtained from Barnala (Jaipur). Presently preserved in Amer Museum . According to this article, in Samvat 284, a person named Soharna Gau Trotpan had restored the prestige of the seven Yupapillars. In this inscription, there is a mention of organizing Gargatriratri to please Lord Vishnu.
Badli's Record :-
This is the oldest inscription of Rajasthan . This inscription of 443 BC was received by Pt. Gaurishankar Hirachand Ojha from Milot Mata temple in Badli village of Ajmer. It dates back to the 2nd century BC, which is considered to be the oldest in the inscriptions of India along with the Priava inscription (487 BC). This inscription is written in Brahmi script. Presently it is preserved in Ajmer Museum , with Ajmer mentioning the spread of Jainism in Madymika (Chittor).
Mandore Records :-
The genealogy of Gurjara Pratihar rulers and Shiva worship have been mentioned in this inscription of 837 AD, located in Mandore of Jodhpur . This inscription was composed by the Gurjar ruler Bouk .
Record of Kanaswa :-
This inscription of 738 AD is inscribed in the village of Kanaswa near Kota, in which the mention of King Dhaval of the Maurya dynasty is found. It is known from the inscriptions of Kanaswa and Putholi (Chittor) that Maurya was related to Rajasthan.The inscription of Kanaswa is important because after this inscription, no other inscription describes the Maurya dynasty kings in Rajasthan.
Pratapgarh inscription (946 AD) :-
It gives information about rural life and feudal customs of the 10th century. In this inscription located in Pratapgarh, the achievements of Gurjar Pratihar ruler Mahendrapal have been described. Other rulers of Pratihara dynasty, Nagabhatta Kukust, Rajbhadra Bhoja and Mahendra Dev etc. are mentioned in this inscription. This article has been obtained from near Chenram Agrawal’s stepwell
in Pratapgarh Nagar. In this inscription, along with Sanskrit language, some popular native words (Arhat, Kushwaha, Chausar, Palika, Pali, Ghana) are mentioned.
Kiradu's article (1161 AD) :-
This inscription of 1161 AD is engraved in the Shiva temple of Kiradu, whose language is Sanskrit. This inscription has been received from Barmer. This inscription dates back to the time of Alan Dev. It is clear from this inscription that the slaughter of animals was completely prohibited by Aalhan Dev on certain dates. In this article the origin of the Paramaras has been told from the Abu Yagya of Vashistha. The lineage of the Parmar branch of Kiradu has been given in this prashasti.
Bhramarmata's article :-
The inscription of 490 AD, obtained from the Bhramarmata temple of Chhoti Sadri in Pratapgarh district, provides information about the political situation of the 5th century and the feudal system of the early period. The inscription mentions the rulers of the Gaur dynasty and the Aulikar dynasty . The author of this article was Brahmsom and the engraver was Poorva. In the last lines of this article, giving charity to a Brahmin after death is said to be beneficial.
Sambhar's article (1634 AD) :-
This article is engraved in Hindi language on the door of an inn. It mentions the construction of this inn by Akbar and its renovation by Shah Jahan.