Razia Sultan |Notes and Key points

Born to Iltutmish and Qutub Begum in 1205, Razia was trained in professional warfare and was taught military skills, along with her siblings. Just like most other children of aristocrats, she had a sound knowledge of how state governance worked.

Who was Razia Sultan ?

Razia Sultan, was born in Budaun  was
the Sultan of Delhi in India from 1236 to May 1240.

Like some other Muslim princesses she was trained to lead armies and administer kingdoms if necessary. Razia Sultana was the only woman ruler of both the Sultanate and the Mughal period, although other women ruled from behind the scenes. Razia refused to be addressed as Sultana because it meant “wife or mistress of a sultan”. She would answer only to the title “Sultan”. In many people’s opinions Razia had all the qualities of a great monarch.

HOW Razia BECAME THE Sultan ?

Razia succeeded her father Shams-ud-din Iltutmish to the Sultanate of Delhi in 1236. Iltutmish became the first sultan to appoint a woman as his successor when he designated his daughter Razia as his heir apparent. Razia was the first and last women ruler of Delhi Sultanate.

But the Muslim nobility had no intention of acceding to Iltutmish’s appointment of a woman as heir, and after the sultan died on April 29, 1236, Razia’s brother, Rukn ud din Firuz, was elevated to the throne instead. Ruknuddin’s reign was short. With Iltutmish’s widow Shah Turkaan for all practical purposes running the government, Ruknuddin abandoned himself to the pursuit of personal pleasure and debauchery, to the outrage of the citizenry.

On November 9, 1236, both Ruknuddin and his mother Shah Turkaan were assassinated after only six months in power. With reluctance, the nobility agreed to allow Razia to reign as Sultan of Delhi.

She dressed like a man and sat in open durbar

Achievements of Razia Sultan ?
  • Suppression of Rebellion – Divide and Rule Policy
  • Extension of Empire – Lakhnauti to Debal
  •  Administration
  •  Veil and female dress – Abandoned
  •  Durbar, Procession – Appeared Malik Yakut (Habshi)
  • Non-Turks appointed – Superintendent of Stable Sise 11

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