Heredity and Environment

 After the birth of a child, its natural appearance cannot be changed, but the aspect of parenting is entirely in the hands of parents and teachers. By making necessary changes in the environment of the child, we can influence his development.


The children of the same parent are different in appearance, yet their eyes, nose or facial features show the glimpse of their ancestors. The reason for all this is heredity, due to which this is possible. In fact, heredity is the passing of the qualities of a parent to its offspring.

JamesDrever – “Inheritance is the transmission of the physical and mental characteristics of the parents to the offspring.”

Process of Inheritance-

The human body is made up of cells (cells). There are two cells in it, one cell is received from the mother, which is received from the mother and the other cell is received from the father, which is called the sperm. The combination of these two results in the formation of a zygote.

In forward division and fusion, if 22 + x of mother meets 22 + x of father, then female and if 22 + x of mother meets with 22 +y of father, Then a boy is born.

Thus it is briefly depicted as

Thus, the father has an important role in sex determination and the chromosomes perform the task of passing the traits from one generation to the next. Humans have 46 or 23 pairs of chromosomes. Genes (factors) are found on these chromosomes, These genes are actually the carriers of traits. During meiosis, these chromosomes meet to form different chromosomes. Due to which variation arises among the children.

Laws of Heredity

Psychologists and biologists have given the following rules of inheritance

  •  The Law of Continuity of Germplasm was given by Weisman. He told that The body is made up of two cells – Somatic cells and Generative cells. Of these, the body’s cells are helpful in the development of the body, while the : productive cells are transferred from generation to generation and they are perishable.
  • Galton’s Law -This law was given by Galton. According to them, a person gets part of all his qualities from his parents. Out of this, 1/4 is received from mother and 1/4 father and 1/4 from grandparents and maternal grandparents and 1/8 from great-grandparents and great-grandparents. This rule applies only to height, weight etc. not to intelligence.  
  • According to the Law of Re-samplance, just as there are parents, so will their children, For example, if there are intelligent parents, then their children will also be intelligent. 
  • Law of Re-gression According to this rule, opposite qualities are found in the child from his parents. Because instead of distributing specific qualities, nature maintains equality in a species by distributing general qualities and sometimes due to lack of proper mixture of lineage-sutras, intelligent and talented parents of retarded parents are born. The father’s child is born with a retarded mind.
  • Transfer of acquired traits The proponent of this law has been Lamarck, who did his study on giraffes. According to them, the qualities acquired by the parents are passed on from generation to generation. McDougall and Pavlov confirmed the Lamarck theory by testing them on rats.
  • *Mendel’s law – Gregor Mendel did his experiments on pea plants and gave the law of effectiveness, the law of separation and the law of independent maturation, according to them, the quality that will be effective in both the parents in the same qualities like height and dwarfism will be the first. It is displayed in the generation but the recessive trait like dwarfism is not destroyed, rather it shows its effect in the next generation when opportunity arises somewhere He did his experiments on pea plants.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *