Physiography of Rajasthan-Central Aravalli’s Notes

  •  It Covers the area of 9% , with 10% Population of Rajasthan
  • Aravalli range is an ancient fold range. (only America’s Appalachian range in this much old.) 
  • In Rajasthan this range acts as a rain-separator line (50 cm.) and water-divide line.
  • This geographical region of Rajasthan was Formed during the pre-Cambrian period.
  • In Rajasthan it runs from south-west to north-west.
  • This range is mostly of quartz-rocks in Rajasthan.
  • 50-70 cm rainfall in this area.
  • Clay-mountainous and red soil is found in this region.
  • It originates from Palanpur in Gujarat and  enters Rajasthan from Khedbrahma (Sirohi), passing through 17 districts of Rajasthan, passing through Haryana, and eventually extends up to Raisina hill of Delhi.   Rashtrapati Bhavan is built over Raisina Hills.
  • Its total length is 692 km and in Rajasthan is 550 km.
  • 80% of the Aravalli range is located in Rajasthan.
Significance of Aravalli Range in Rajasthan:-
  • The Aravalli ranges divide Rajasthan into desert and non-desert zone.
  • The Aravalli ranges prevent the eastern extension of the desert.
  • Rivers flow in both of  its side (west and east).
  • Most of the rivers of Rajasthan originate from the Aravalli ranges such as – Banas, Bedach, Sabarmati, Luni, Jawai, Kothari etc.

Note: The Jojri river does not originate from the Aravalli.

  • Aravalli ranges is Very rich in terms of Flora and Fauna.
  • Aravalli is called the Ruhr region of Rajasthan. because most of the state’s minerals are mined here.

Ruhr region is Germany’s Industrial Heartland (Rajasthan is compared here in terms of Minerals)

  • Because the monsoon winds go Parallel to Aravalli , the Aravalli ranges do not get enough rainfall. Rainfalls happens if the monsoon winds hit the Aravalli range 


From the study point of view, we can divided the Aravalli ranges into three parts
  1. South-Western Aravalli’s
  2. Central Aravalli’s
  3. North-East Aravalli’s
South-Western Aravalli’s
  • Actually, the true form (Huge Mountains and Lakes) of Aravalli ranges is located only in the south-east Aravalli region.
  • The major districts of this region are Sirohi, Udaipur and Rajsamand.
  • Sirohi district has the highest elevation of Aravalli ranges.
  • The maximum width and the maximum extension is in Udaipur district.
  • The lowest height and lowest extension of the Aravalli ranges is in Ajmer district.
  • Its highest peak in this Aravalli region is
  • Gurushikhar (1722 m),
  • Ser-1597 m,
  • Delwara-1441 m,
  • Achalgarh-1382 m,
  • Rishikesh. -1017 meters

(All in Sirohi)

  1. The Abu plateau at Sirohi is 19 km long and 8 km wide with an altitude of 1200 m above sea level.
  2. The highest plateau in the state is the Odiya plateau (1360 m) (Sirohi), which is 160 m higher than the Abu plateau.
In Udaipur district 
  1. Mt. Jarga-1431 m.(highest in Udaipur)
  2. Mt. Kamalnath is – 1001 m
  3. Mt. Sajjangarh – 938 m. .
  4. Mt. Sayas is 900 m. 
In Rajsamand
  • Mt. Kumbhalgarh  is 1224 m.
  • Mt. Lilagarh is -874 m.
  • Mt. Nagpani is 867 m.
  • Located in the far foothills of the Aravalli in the far foothills, the Peeplud of Haldeshwar Peak in the Malani Parvat of Barmer (the 56 hills) is called the ‘Mini-Mount of Marwar’. The highest peak is (869 m). Its other major peaks include Roja Bhakhar, Israna Peak, Jharol Peak and Sundha Parvat located in Jalore district. A small part of Aravalli is also spread in the Dungarpur region, which is called the city of hills.

It is famous for Jain temples of Abu in Aravalli region, Sundha Mata temple of Jalore, Jagat Ambika temple of Udaipur and Achalgarh fort, Chittorgarh fort, Kumbhalgarh fort etc. are prominent in this area. The famous lakes of Udaipur are built in the lap of Aravali. The main pass or canal of the South-West Aravalli region is called the narrow and narrow passage between the two mountains, which are as follows- Phulwari’s Nal – Udaipur Someshwara’s Naal – Rajsamandkevda’s Naal – UdaipurHathi Guda’s Naal – Rajsamandjhilwa / Pagalya’s Mewar and Marwar Central Aravalli in Nal-Pali:- This region is situated between 25o38′ North latitude to 26o58′ North latitude and 73o54′ to 74o22′ East longitude. It extends from the south-western part of Jaipur to the Deogarh Tehsil of Rajsamand district in the south. In the Aravalli region, the Aravalli ranges are not in the wide part but in the narrow state or in a torn state. The highest peak of this region is Taragarh-873 meters. Taragarh fort is built here. Its other mountain peaks are spiral-shaped, Nag ka Pahar (795 m), located to the south of Ajmer.

The mountain peak (933 m) of Maraiji is located in the foothills far from Todgarh. Pushkar Lake, located in the central Aravalli region, is the state’s sacred lake. Savitri-Gayatri hills and temples are situated here. The world’s only ancient Brahma temple is located near it. Major pass: – Ghat pass as the pass of Kachwali pass Udabari Ghat pass Pass of Parveria Pass of Shivpur Ghatdebari North-East Aravalli: – This area is 26o55′ to 28o4′ north latitude and 74o55′ to 77o03′ It is situated in the middle of east longitude. In this part, the Aravalli ranges are made up of quartzite and phyllite rocks. There are fertile valleys and trembling basins in the middle of the hills. It extends from Sambhar to Khetri. The main areas in this region are Jaipur, Dausa, The districts of Tonk, Sawai Madhopur, Jhunjhunu, Sikar and Alwar are included. The highest peak of this region is Raghunathgarh-1055 meters (Sikar). Other peaks mainly include Jaipur’s Kho-920 meters, Jaigarh-648 meters, Nahargarh-599 meters. Khetri in the Jhunjhunu region is part of the Aravalli ranges, where most of Rajasthan’s copper is extracted. This area is known for its illegal mining. Harsha hills in Sikar, Raivasa Dham on Malkhat/Balkhet hills, Jeen Mata’s temple, Harsh’s temple, Raiwasal salt water lake and Khandela hills are located. The maximum extent of Aravalli is in Alwar district. Here the hills of Ajabgarh, Alwar-Fort area, Sariska area and Pandupol Hanuman’s temple are located.

Sankranti Kshetra: – Near Ranthambore there is a confluence of Aravalli ranges and Vindhyachal ranges, this area is called infected or Sankranti Kshetra. Ranthambore fort and Trinetra Ganesha temple are located nearby here. Other facts: – Aravalli range is called A Beam Lying Across or Ada-Vta in local language. In Bundi it is called ‘Adawala’. In Sikar it is called ‘Adawala’. The hills are called ‘Malkhet’ or ‘Balkhet’. In Barmer it is called ‘Malani’ mountain. In Ajmer it is called ‘Merwara’ hills. The entire mountainous region is called ‘Meru region’. The average height of the Aravalli ranges is 930 metres. Question: If the Aravalli ranges were not present in Rajasthan, what effect would have been visible? Answer: The desert area expands in Rajasthan.

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