Psychology of Adolescents

Meaning and Concept of Adolescents-

Just as the arrival of one season is followed by the second season, but in the first season, the signs of the coming season are visible, in the same way, different stages of development are related to each other. Adolescence. “Adolescence”  word Adolescence is derived from the Latin word Adolesc, which means “moving to maturity”. According to Jasild – Adolescence is the stage in which a person moves from childhood to maturity. Adolescence is Between the ages of 12 and 18. In Stanley’s recent words- “Adolescence is the age of stress and strain, storm.

Physical and Mental changes during this Stage-

 Due to the various changes that take place in this stage, new ideas, new experiences and new energy are visible in the adolescent. Adolescents are aware of opposite policies towards themselves, towards society and environment. Through his actions, behavior and thoughts, he shows his strength, enthusiasm and existence and passion, courage etc. It faces new challenges, problems and responsible elements and develops its own capacity accordingly. He has to work hard to cope with many complex problems of life. Due to such efforts, many times new problems and difficulties arise, as a result of which adolescence is a period of revolution in terms of psychological development.

Physical development in adolescence – Many physical changes and development can be seen during this period. Almost all the parts of the body are fully developed during this period. Almost complete development of heart, lungs, bones, sense organs etc. takes place during this period. Nutritious food, exercise and rest are essential for physical development. The length of the body also increases during this period. During this period the height of boys increases more than that of girls. Weight increases with height, there is also some difference in weight between boys and girls. This difference is due to the difference in the structure and length of the organs. Apart from this, various parts of the body also develop in adolescence.

The development of organs takes place in a certain proportion:

1. Head and brain – During this period the development of head and brain is going on as usual. Till the age of 15-16 years The head of the juvenile becomes fully developed.

2. Weight – During this period, there is a substantial increase in the weight of the child, the root cause of this increase is the strength in the muscles and bones. At the age of 10 to 15 years, the weight of girls is more than Boys . But after that the weight of boys increases by more than 15 pounds.

3. Development of internal organs – In adolescence, the full development of the child’s  organs, heart, breathing, digestion and nervous system takes place. Heaviness in the voice of boys and softness in the voice of girls. Boys’ blood pressure starts increasing. The full development of the lungs of boys and girls.

4. Genitals – In adolescence, the genitals of boys and girls are fully developed. Boys start having Wet dreams and girls start menstruating. Both have the ability to procreate. In this stage, the reproductive organs of boys and girls become fully mature, at this time the development of the sex organs of girls takes place at a rapid pace. Heaviness and roundness comes in the breasts and buttocks of girls. The knobs in their breasts also become slightly visible. Hair begins to appear on the sex organs of both boys and girls, many problems arise as a result of the multilateral development that takes place in adolescence. Children are not able to adjust themselves in different areas. Sometimes the tendency to hesitate increases. Due to disappointments and frustrations, many children become irritable, stubborn and rowdy. In this stage, adolescents should be assigned some responsible tasks.

From the point of view of social development – V.Kuppuswami’s “Adolescence is the period of transmission between puberty and adulthood, in this stage a new social-emotional adjustment is possible according to the changing physical condition. Now he has to learn to adjust with the opposite sex. The feeling of resistance to the norms of the adult people continues in this period and due to this many kinds of difficulties in domestic life arise. Girls in boys, boys start taking interest in girls. They are hesitant to express their love feelings even when they want each other.

Characteristics of social development towards makeup and other performances are as follows:

1. At this time there is no openness of behavior. There is concern about what others think about it. To hide one’s weakness and a sense of revenge arises.

2. Attraction begins to arise.

3. Boys and girls make their own group and also blush among themselves.

4. Conformity towards the group, self-establishment, social insight, opposition to elders, leadership,  etc. are also the characteristics of social development in this period.

5.Due to the feeling of self-respect, adolescents start taking interest in social work. 

From the point of view of mental development-

In adolescence, there is a high amount of mental development, various mental abilities develope in adolescents, thinking, reasoning and decision power increase. According to Mr. Kalhan, “Adolescence, childhood and adulthood is a period of significant change. During this period there is a significant increase in the ability of adolescent girls and boys to concentrate. It is generally seen that adolescent girls have more ability to memorize the subject than teenagers boys .At this stage, the imagination power of adolescent girls and boys  becomes very strong and they are able to work in different types of imaginary world. So they have a lot of dreams  in this stage. In general, both boys and girls have a tendency to read love-literature and sex-literature. By the way, in this period boys are thrilled literature, sports stories and adventure travel. – Take more interest in reading literature. In this period, adolescent girls also start making plans for their future. Most of the boys make plans to become doctors, engineers, lawyers or military officers. On the contrary, most of the girls are doctors, nurses, Adolescent girls dream of becoming a teacher, actress, writer or social worker.

Characteristics of adolescence-

(i) Weight – In adolescence, there is a substantial increase in the weight of the child. The root cause of this growth is the strength in muscles and bones. Between the age of 1 year to 15 years, the weight of girls is more than that of boys, but after that the weight of boys increases up to 15 pounds. Generally it has been observed that in adolescence there is an increase of 1 pound to 15 pounds per year.

(ii) Height – The height of boys and girls increases at a faster rate in adolescence, from the age of 11 years to 14 years, the height of girls increases more than boys. Boys and girls attain about 90% of their height in adolescence, after the age of 15, the height of boys exceeds girls.

(iii) Head and brain – Even in adolescence, the development of head and brain is going on as before. The head of the juvenile is fully developed by the age of 15-16 years. Like the head of an adult.

(iv) Bones – In adolescence, all the bones start gaining strength, the flexibility starts to end, some bones also start to join together, usually the process of destabilization ends in this stage. With maturity in all bones comes strength. Meat and fat start collecting on the hip bones of girls.

(v) Teeth- In adolescence, the child’s teeth attain complete stability. Scholars say that the teeth of girls come first in comparison to boys, in this stage all the teeth of the child have come out. Akaldad also starts coming out by the end of this stage

(vi) Development of internal organsIn this stage, the child’s vocal organs, heart, breathing, digestion and nervous system are fully developed, heaviness in the voice of boys and voice of girls. Mildness starts coming in the boys blood pressure starts increasing. Lungs are fully developed in boys and girls. There is an increase in muscle speed from 66 to 73 per minute. Digestion becomes fully efficient.

(vii) Genitals – During adolescence, the genitals of boys and girls are fully developed. Boys start having wet dream and girls start menstruating (menstruation), both of them have the ability to produce children. In this stage the reproductive organs of boys and girls become fully mature. At this time, the development of the sex organs of girls takes place at a fast pace. Hair starts growing on the sex organs of both boys and girls

(viii) Other organs – In adolescence, almost all the organs of boys and girls are moving towards their full maturity, the muscles of both boys and girls become strong and strong. Hair comes on the genitals. Boys’ beard-mustache starts growing, sometimes it has also been seen that due to the lack of proper functioning of the ductless gland, the hair of the beard and mustache of girls also starts coming out. It seems heart in adolescence.


The origin of this word in the English language is from the Latin word ’emovier’. The axis of the word ’emovier’ is to excite or stir up or create a revolution.

According to Arthur T.Gild- “The word Emotion denotes the state of being in any kind of charge, aroused and excited.”

According to Pudworth, Emotion is the complete state of the energy of an animal. “

According to McDougall,  Emotions are based on emotions which take a violent form. Under the emotions, many types of physical changes are seen in the human being.

Types of Emotions-

We can classify the types of emotions on the basis of their effect. If we analyze Emotions , we will see that these emotions have both favorable and unfavorable effects on us. The effect of the Emotions depends on the frequency  and intensity of the Emotions. Apart from this, their effect also depends on the factors or stimuli causing the emotions,

In short, emotions can be divided into two classes

(1) Positive emotions-The emotions which are beneficial for the individual and the society, we keep them in the category of positive emotions. For example, emotions of love, creativity, happiness etc.

(2) Negative emotions- Emotions which are not beneficial for the individual and society, we keep them in the category of negative emotions like anger, jealousy, fear, unhappiness etc.

Characteristics of emotions There are three aspects of our behavior –

1) Cognitive side

(2) Emotional side

(3) The functional side

 For example , when a child sees a bear , it is said to be its cognitive side. Seeing that bear awakens a sense of fear in him, this is his emotional side and the child runs away in fear of him, this is called the functional side.

On studying these aspects of behavior, the following characteristics of emotions are known.

1) Emotions required for emotions – Emotions are necessary for any emotion. When our feelings towards any object or person  happens, then they become emotions, so every emotion has some emotion in it.

(2) Physical changes – Emotions and physical changes have a deep relationship, trembling of the body under the influence of emotions, hot palpitations, rapid heart rate The main physical changes are the redness of the face in anger or yellow color from fear, loosening of hands and feet due to fear.

(3) Perpetuity of emotions – Emotions are lasting for some time and then dissipate, for example, on hearing happiness, everything feels good throughout the day, and due to anger over something, anger continues throughout the day.

4) Effect on human activity – Very strong emotions affect human activity. Many emotions increase the activity and many emotions decrease the activity. For example, emotions of anger often decrease activity and emotions of happiness often increase activity.

(5) Loss of self-control – Under the influence of emotions, a person loses control over himself and acts in such a way that he may later Regrets. When he loses self-control, he becomes ready to even kill another person.

(6) Personality Characteristics – Different people exhibit different types of emotions in the same situation. For example, if a person slips on the road, the person who falls feels pain and pain and others feel happy and laugh on seeing him.

(7) Different reasons for the same emotion – The reasons for the same kind of emotion can be different, e.g. the emotion of fear arises in different people due to different reasons.

(8) The origin of emotions in all living things – Emotions arise in all living things, that is, from the lower classes of beings to human beings. Like humans, animals also get angry.

Emotional development-

Adolescence is said to be the period of difficult, storms and struggles among all the stages of life, because the changes that take place in this period are very important and affect the physical, mental, social, emotional and emotional health of the adolescents.  Due to this effect, many types of problems, inferiority complexes arise in the life of children, which are very important to overcome. Emotions play a very important role in the development of the child. As a result of the imbalance of these emotions, this can cause many problems.

The meaning of social development-

Is that the child at birth is like an animal, but gradually due to the growth in various aspects of its personality, it develops into a social human , along with age, the child is transformed into a skilled human.  The socialization of the child is also one of the major processes in this process of change. At different stages of development In order to understand the discrepancy of social development, it is very important to explain the meaning of universal social development.

Social development is the acquisition of the ability to behave according to social expectations. According to Harlock, “Social development means attainment of maturity in social relations.” Explaining the meaning of social development,

Sorenson has said – “Social growth and development means that we are concerned with our increasing ability to get along well with ourselves and with others.” from qualification.

On the basis of these definitions we can say that only society makes a human being civilized. Social qualities are not innate. All aspects of development have their own effect on the child and in this process, social qualities also develop gradually in the child.

In adolescence, all aspects of development are important, they are affected in some way or the other. to do Many factors play a role. Emotional development and social development and social development are very important in various aspects of this development in adolescents. Due to this important change, the balance of emotions in the child gets disturbed. That’s why adolescence has been called ‘the period of storms and strains’. During this period, the storm of emotions in many young men and women is so strong that it is very difficult to control them.

Social development in adolescence leads the child to social maturity.

Emotional development in a child is influenced by the following factors:

(1) Growth – Growth is considered to play an important role in the emotional development of adolescents. Adolescents with high intelligence have more emotional maturity and adolescents with low intelligence have less emotional development. An intelligent person Can control the situations by his reasoning and thinking power and can use his emotions appropriately.

(2) Health and physical development- Due to any kind of deficiencies in physical development, the emotional development of children is also affected. Adolescents who are ill tend to be irritable and angry. While being happy, black boys mature emotionally.

 (3) Family environment – Family environment has a lot to do with emotions. Adolescent imitates the elder and other members of the family a lot. In a fighting home environment, the adolescent’s emotions also develop in the same way.

( 4 ) School environment – Teacher’s behavior in the school environment, teacher’s tone, inter-curricular activities, mutual relationship between teachers and headmaster, etc. affect the emotional development of adolescents in one way or the other, so the school environment should be conducive, so that the adolescent child is in it. make your adjustments appropriately.

(5) Influence of community and neighborhood – In addition to the above environments, the neighborhood of adolescent families and the behavior of the members of the community in which they live also affect adolescents’ emotions. The emotions will also mature. Adolescents learn to fight – quarrel or abuse by living in an anti-social community or in a low-level community.

( 6) Relationship with friend – The effect of how the friend circle of adolescents is related to each other The emotional development of adolescents has a lot to do with if the members of the friend circle are properly socialized, then the emotional development of the adolescent children belonging to that friend circle will also be affected.

( 7 ) Professional problems – Many times many teenagers are not able to take the profession of their choice and choice . Due to which they remain unhappy, sometimes a business conflict arises between the youth and their parents. This type of situation affects the emotions.

( 8 ) Emotion and social development – A deep relationship has been found between social development and emotional development. Both developments are dependent on each other. If the youth is developed socially, he will develop emotionally too. A socially ill-adjusted young man or girl cannot develop emotionally.

Similarly, the social development of adolescence is influenced by the following factors

(1) Family – Family is the most important factor affecting social development first and foremost. Personality of parents and other family members play a major role in the development of social personality of adolescents. Family elements like tension, unhappiness, divorce, death etc.
 Contribute to the social development, young men and women imitate the members of the family.

(2) Effects of School – The influence of school environment also plays a very important place in the social development of youth. After leaving the family, the adolescent enters the school environment, the teacher has to take the place of the parent, the attitude of the teachers towards the children in the school is very important for the social development of the adolescent. School environment is essential in producing a responsible citizen.

(3) Influence of neighborhood – Neighborhood also directly or indirectly affects the social development of adolescents. From the knowledge of the people of the neighborhood and the level of the children, we can get an idea of ​​the level of social development of adolescents. The role of the following elements of the neighborhood in the social development of adolescents is important –

(1) Socio-economic status of the neighborhood

(2) Occupation of the parents.

(4) Effect of siblings – The relationship between siblings in the family also affects the social development of adolescents. Family size contributes greatly to the social development of adolescents. The personality of adolescents from large families will differ from that of adolescents from smaller families. In each family, the adolescent assumes his own specific role, in large families these roles vary greatly.

(5) Physical health – There is a strong relationship between the physical development and social development of children. Inferiority arises in physically unhealthy adolescents.

( 6) Emotional development – The social development of children was seen to have a great influence on the emotional control of adolescents. An emotionally mature person is socially mature. Therefore, training adolescents about the control of emotions should be an essential task for social development.

(7) Effect of mental development – Like emotional development, the relationship of mental development of adolescents has also been found with social development. It has been found in studies that a mentally developed person becomes socially mature. Therefore, the social development of intelligent adolescents is often certain.

 ( 8 ) Religious institutions – Various religious institutions such as temples, gurudwaras, churches etc. make special contribution in social development, these institutions develop moral values ​​in adolescents. These moral values ​​are necessary for social development.

( 9) Influence of friend circle – The personality of the friends of the adolescent can turn the personality of the adolescent in any direction. The nature of the members in the circle of friends will have an effect on the socialization of the adolescent. For example, if the friend is a misdemeanor, the juvenile living with him will also be affected by his child offences. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the friend circle of adolescents.


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