Rise of Marwar under Jodha & Maldeo

The western part of the Aravalli is called Marwar, At the time of foundation of Rathor rule in the first decade of the 13th century the  region was ruled by the Chauhans, Mohels & Gohils. Pali was then an important cetre of trade & commerce. The Palliwal Brahimns of Pali were harassed by the rulers of the land. So when Sinha passed through Poli Jasodher. the leader of the Palliwal community sought help of Siha againat the Balecha Chauhans, Siha settled at Pali & died there on the Oth October, 1273.

Therefore I have written in my Ph D thesis “Marwar & the Mughal Emperors ” that “the beginning of the Rathor rule in Manyar almost coincided with the accession of slave sultan litutmish on the throne of Delhi. “After death of Siha his son & successor conquered Khergarh which became the first capital of Rathors in Marwar. The successors of Asthan, son of Siha, made efforts to expand their territory in the region dessite attempts on the part of Turk-Afghan Sultans of Delhi to establish muslim rule over the region. Raipal, the grandson of Asthan, succeeded in conquering Mandor after the downfall of Khilji sultanate in Delhi. Mandor became the second capital of Rathors in Marwar. Raipal had thirteen sons whose progeny spread over the entire Marwar in years to come. Chunda became the ruler of Marwar in 1383. He took advantage of the weak successor of Firoz Tughlak followed by Timur’s invasion of India in 1398, by expending domain of Rathor state. Chunda’s political carcer started with varied conquests. He annexed entire territory round about Nagor & Mandor. Thus, Khatu, Didwana, Sambhar. Ajmer & Nadol came under his possession. Col. Tod has described expansion of Marwar in these words, “Hitherto they had attracted notice by their valour and raids, whenever there was prospect of success : but they had so multiplied in eleven generations that they now essayed higher flights, “After murder of Chunda in 1423 his eld son Ranmal bocame the ruler in 1427, Ranmal was assissinatod at Chit in the year 1438. Since then began inter state feud between Mewar Marwar.

Just after the murder of his father at Chitor, Jodha lad to for life. Wandering here and there for fifteen years he succeeded in routi Mewar forces from Marwar by 1453 He extended his rule upto Chan Dronpur which leads to conclude that he recaptured Nagor. Rana Udai Singh of Mewar gave him Sambhar & Ajmer to keep him away from the afflairs of Mewar state. At the time of his death in 1489 the Rathe state of Marwar comprised of Mandor, Sojat a portion of “Godwad Shiv, Siwana, Sambhar, Ajmer & large portion of present Nagor distric He founded the city of Jodhpur & overlooking that wilt the famous Mehrangarh.

Jodha was succceded by Satal whom his brother Suja succoedet During their reign Sindhals of Chanod & Raipur were subjugated, Suja was succcoded by Rao Ganga in 1515 A.D.He ruled for 16 years. Durine this period the region of Marwar & all other important adjoining areas had been forged’into one compact porincipality which also became the traditional home of the Rathors. Mehrangarh & Jodlipur became the source of inspiration & courage to all Rathors. The descendants of Siha had founded many other principalities. By the time Ganga’s son Maldoo succeeded to the Gadi of Marwar in the year 1531, the state was conglomeration of smaller units each being ruled by a chieftain of its own who was more often than not of the Rathor clan. One clan, one state was the significant feature of the State of Marwar, The deascendarts of various other clans of the Rajputa were either driven off or subduod by forefathers of Rao Ganga.

Marwar Under Rao Maldeo

Rana Sanga of Mewar had invited Rao Ganga of Marwar to participate in war against Zahir Ud Din Mohammed Babur. Marwar contingent under the command of Prince Maldeo fought in the battle of Khanwa. It played conspicuous role in the battle. Being posted in the left wing of Sanga’s army it lodged attack on Babur’s army & whch Rana Sanga became unconscious Maldeo escorted the Rana to a nat by safe place Baswa.

At the time of Maldeo’s accession political condition of Rajastika was quite favourable for him to extend & consolidate the his forefathers. The ruler of Agra Humayun was busy in prolonged struggle against the recaletrant. Afgnans on the eastern & western direction. After the death of Sanga his state had plunged into internal chaos Enemies of the Timurid dynasty founded by Babur in 1526 started raising their heads for political hegemony. Under such circumstances Maldeo got the desired opportunity to wage offensive wars against neighbouring states.

Soon after his accesion Maldeo waged war against Sindhals of Bhadrajun whom he subdued. He procceded against Bihari Pathan rulers of Jalor. After their subjugation he annexed the forts of Sanchor & Siwana. Then he tumed his attention towards offshoots of Rao Jodha who had created states of Merta & Bikaner. He first defeated Biram of Merta followed by discomfiture of Bikaner which was then hcld by Rao Jaitsi. He also drove away Pathans of Nagor. annexed the principalitics of Sambhar, C daipur Bati, Fatchpur-Didwana, Chatsu, present Tonk, Toda, Malpura, Bilara. Jaitaran & Pachpdra. “Thus in course of ten years, by reducing many local hereditary chicftains, Rao Maldeo had increased his possessions in every side so that they comprenended all the present country of Jodhpur, including Jaisalmer, Ajmer & large portion of Amber, which brought him close to the boundaries of Agra & Delhi “Thus Marwar under Maldeo reached the zenith of expansion, power & glory, The Persian chronicler Ferishta has correctly described Maldeo as the most Potent Prince of Hindustan.

Maldeo played the role of kingmaker by extending invitation to fugative Mughal Emperor Humayun in 1541 when he had been dislodged by Sher Shah Suri in the battle of Bilgram in 1540. Humayun was not destined to avail of the suo motto offer of help from Maldeo. Result of this overture was that Maldeo had to fight against Sher Shah decisive batte of Samel in January, 1544 in which he was defeated. After his defeat Maldeo lost his hereditary kingdom, his capital passed into the hands of victor. Sher Shah who got a mosque erected in the fort of Mehrangarh as token of his victory over Maldeo. Maldeo had to flee from place to place for safety of his life. Sher Shah consolidated his conquest by estiblishing Thanas in Marwar which remained in the hands of Sur Sultanate for 524 days. Maldeo recovered all lost territorics by 1555 before Humyun’s victory over Hemu Vikramaditya in the battle of Panipat. but, Maldeo in his old age played like a puppet in the hands of Haji Khan Pathan, the representative of Sur Salnate in Rajasthan. Due to this Pathan bloody battle was fought betwoen Rana Udai Singh of Mewar & Maldco on the plains of Harmada in January, 1557, This was the time when Humayun’s son & successor Akbar was consohdating his position in the region of Rajasthan, Mirza Sherfudin was appointed as first Mughal Subedar at Ajmer, Absence of the law of primogeniture family reuds in Mewar & Marwar Maldeo’s unbranded ambition of extending his territories turped his relatives into avowed enemies. The Mughals took advantage of intercine feuds, Maldeo lost his dominions one by one bcfore his death in 1562. His son & successor Chandrasen could not even avert the fall of traditional capital of Rathors in Marwar, Jodhpur was first captured by Hussain Quli Khan in 1564 & it was finally lost by Chandrasen in 1571. Thus lack of farsigntedness on the part of Maldeo the independence of Marwar was lost once for all. Marwar became a Sarkar of Suba Ajmer during the reign of Akbar. The state recovered its lost power & position in 1707 after the death of Emperor Aurangzeb during the reign of Maharaja Ajit Singh

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